Fifth-generation mobile networks, an umbrella terms for upcoming telecommunications standards expected to deliver 10 Gbps and ultra-low latency.

Likely to enable more fluid over-the-air updates, vehicle to vehicle (V2V, vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle to everything (V2X) communications.


Adaptive Cruise Control automatically adapts the vehicle speed to maintain safe distance from the vehicle in front.

ACC can accelerate and brake a car autonomously. With the help of a radar sensor, camera or lidar, the system maintains both the driver’s chosen speed and a programmed safe distance to the vehicle in front. This helps drivers reach their destination more relaxed, while the more even driving style saves fuel.

With Stop and Go control over the engine, ACC can stop the car completely and restart the engine once traffic gets moving again after a brief pause.

Some ACC systems allow drivers to specify follow distance, while may also have difficulty in poor weather, tunnels or harsh braking conditions.


Autonomous, Connected, Electric and Shared vehicle – the ideal future vehicle with a high level of use and therefore resource efficiency.

Adaptive Front Lighting System

Terrain or contour following light control detects changes in the pitch orientation of the car and steering position to direct lights towards the road surface, up or down inclines, as well as left or right towards upcoming curves in the road.

Adaptive Light Control

Adaptive Light Control detects oncoming traffic and vehicles in front, automatically adjusting the headlamp beam high and low.

More advanced systems may also detect poor weather to trigger front or rear facing fog lights.



Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are a variety of technologies combines to improve the safety of a vehicle in its environment, as well as its occupants.

Some systems have manual intervention and settings, such as Automatic Cruise Control, while others are automatic and enabled specifically for safety-critical applications – such as Automatic Emergency Braking.

ADAS provides the foundation for technologies which enable autonomous driving because it needs sensors (ultrasonic, RADAR, LiDAR, camera), processing (on board centralised or multiple decentralised processors) and considerable research and development work in algorithm development, safety testing and vehicle control.



Consortium of companies aiming to develop open standards around enhancing ADAS systems with data from navigation systems.


Automatic Emergency Braking monitors the proximity of vehicles in front, detecting potential collisions towards the front. Braking is automatically applied to avoid or reduce the collision effects.

If a radar or video camera sensor detects an obstacle ahead of the moving car, the system prepares the braking system for emergency braking and warns the driver, usually with audio visual or other sensory alerts, such as steering wheel feedback.

If the driver doesn’t respond, the system performs partial braking in order to increase the time available to react. As soon as the driver steps on the brakes, the system helps to avoid an accident by calculating the braking power needed and increasing the braking power applied should the driver brake too gently.

If the driver still fails to respond and the system detects that a collision is unavoidable, it performs emergency braking. This helps to greatly mitigate the consequences of the accident.

As with many ADAS system, it’s not always reliable (objects which are elevated or are not picked up by forward facing sensors may not be detected), so the severity of accident in the event of system failure is likely to be high.

May also be referred to as Collision Mitigation Braking, Crash Imminent Braking, Collision Imminent Braking.


Equipment that is installed or brought in after purchase of the vehicle.

Aftermarket modifications do not involve the original equipment manufacturer (OEM), as contrasted with retrofits which are done with the involvement of OEM, so are likely to breach any warranty on the vehicle

Android Auto

Android Auto is a mobile app developed by Google to mirror features from an Android device (e.g., smartphone) to a car’s compatible in-dash information and entertainment head unit or to a dashcam.

Anti-lock Braking System

Helps prevent wheels from locking up – possibly allowing the driver to steer to safety.

Wheel rotation sensors detect when your car’s tyres begin locking up. Then, they rapidly apply and release (pulse) the brakes to automatically keep your tyres from skidding and ensure that brakes continue to slow the vehicle.


Autonomous EV development company and parent / partner to Roborace. Based in the UK.


Application-specific integrated circuit – An integrated circuit customized for a specific use; for example, a computer vision accelerator.


Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) is a risk classification scheme defined by the ISO 26262 – Functional Safety for Road Vehicles standard.

This classification helps defining the safety requirements necessary to be in line with the ISO 26262 standard.

There are four ASILs identified by the standard: ASIL A, ASIL B, ASIL C, ASIL D. ASIL D dictates the highest integrity requirements on the product and ASIL A the lowest.

ASIL D represents likely potential for severely life-threatening or fatal injury in the event of a malfunction and requires the highest level of assurance that the dependent safety goals are sufficient and have been achieved.

Assisted Night Vision

Assisted Night Vision captures images using a thermal camera or active infrared lighting and presents it on a dashboard or head-up-display.

This increases the driver’s perception and viewing distance during night time.

As thermal cameras are quite expensive, these are rare, however – most CMOS based video cameras can detect infrared light so adding a dedicated light source with the appropriate wavelength and existing front-facing cameras is more cost-effective.

Since infrared is invisible to the human eye, there is no restriction on throw or power of this light source, so it carries the advantage of improving visibility without affecting on-coming drivers or other road users.